The individual is the primary unit of analysis in psychological theories. A biological perspective is relevant to the study of psychology in three ways: Hormones implicated in abnormal functioning include: Social programs aimed at socializing children properly and providing support for single family homes are also examples of sociological methods to control crime.
In other words, if heredity i. Addiction is linked to the reward pathways that use dopamine as a neurotransmitter. Radical behaviorism Developed by BF Skinner, Radical Behaviorism describes a particular school that emerged during the reign of behaviorism.
Damage to the hippocampus, as seen in the cases of HM and Clive Wearingcan lead to profound memory loss.
Make sure you refer to genes, neurotransmitters, hormones, brain damage, toxicity and disease. Structural damage or abnormality Damage to certain areas of the brain, for example as the result of a head injury, stroke or brain surgery, or a failure of brain areas to develop properly can lead to abnormal behaviour: Therefore, research can be carried out on animals as well as humans i.
Mercury poisoning can cause abnormal behaviour such as the 'madness' that used to be seen in felt makers immortalised in Lewis Carol's Allice in Wonderland's Mad Hatter. Heredity Neurotransmitter dysfunction Brain abnormalities that were caused by either of the above, improper development, or trauma Raine, Biological theorists would also endorse stricter penalties and better law enforcement techniques for crime control, but there are several methods of crime control that are specific to the biological theories of criminality.
Drugs are good at quickly treating the symptoms of a disorder, but they are less effective at treating the actual cause of the disorder. Thus, certain types of human activity are harmful and are judged so by society as a whole.
Even more sophisticated is the PET scan Positron Emission Tomography which uses a radioactive marker as a way of studying the brain at work. When the children who had watched the aggressive adult were allowed into the room they also played aggressively with the Bobo doll, however those who had observed the calm adult did not.
However, while widely discussed as a potential treatment for criminal behavior a perusal of the literature could not find a court ordered case for a lobotomy as a sentence for a convicted criminal Lobotomies were also used for people who were considered an annoyance because the demonstrated behaviors characterized as moody or they were children who were defiant with authority figures such as teachers.
The role of the patient The biological model offers people a role and treatments they are familiar with, and are often happy to go along with, for example it is easy to trust a doctor and easy to take the medications prescribed.
In line with this, changing the environment of the offender such as providing more opportunities would be a psychological behavioral principle designed to cut crime. In line with other psychological methods are policies aimed at maintaining a visible presence of law enforcement and methods to maintain self-awareness in tempting situations.
Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders 4th Ed. In this example the aggressive behaviour has been positively reinforced, and so the person is more likely to behave aggressively towards people in the future.
Explain and elaborate on the main assumptions of the biological model of abnormality. In Diet and criminality. The ways these structures cultures and contradictions have historically developed. Factors that may affect nervous system functioning Genes Genes are inherited from parents.
Neuro Surgery We know so little about the brain and its functions are so closely integrated that brain surgery is usually only attempted as a last resort. One of the sociological policy methods of crime control would be to advocate for decriminalization of these victimless crimes or at least a vast reduction in their penalties Schur, Watson launches the behavioral school of psychology, publishing an article, Psychology as the behaviorist views it.
It is the only approach in psychology that examines thoughts, feelings, and behaviors from a biological and thus physical point of view. Chronic stress involves high levels of cortisol being produced by the adrenal cortex.
In addition to studying brain damaged patients, we can find out about the working of the brain in three other ways. Animal research Much of the research into classical and operant conditioning has been conducted on animals. Discuss reductionism, determinism, the problems of animal research, and media influence.
There is also the famous genetic XYY combination that was once thought to be a marker for a criminal type, but as it turned out these individuals were found to be less intelligent or more likely to have learning difficulties as opposed to being criminal types.
The purposes of imprisonment include punishment, rehabilitation, deterrence, and selective confinement. If it is punished it will stop. Comparing identical twins with non-identical twins for rates of heritability can help answer the nature-nurture question.
Sociological controls targeted at this goal could originate in higher State and Federal levels of government as well as local levels of government and would include programs designed to guarantee equal opportunities to all individuals.The biological approach believes us to be as a consequence of our genetics and physiology.
It is the only approach in psychology that examines thoughts, feelings, and behaviors from a biological and thus physical point of view. Lots of (early) behaviorist work was done with animals (e.g.
Pavlov’s dogs) and generalized to humans . Behaviorism precedes the cognitivist worldview. It rejects structuralism and is an extension of Logical Positivism. Models of Abnormality TOPIC OVERVIEW The Biological Model How Do Biological Theorists Explain Abnormal Behavior?
Biological Treatments LECTURE OUTLINE I.
MODELS OF ABNORMALITY A. In science, the perspectives used to explain events are known as models or paradigms 1. Each spells out basic assumptions, gives order to the ﬁeld under study.
Outline and evaluate the biological model of abnormality (12 marks) 6 AO1 marks. Explain and elaborate on the main assumptions of the biological model of abnormality.
Make sure you refer to genes, neurotransmitters, hormones, brain damage, toxicity and disease. Unless the question specifically refers to biological treatments, you must avoid. Evaluating the behaviourist model of abnormality Too reductionist and ignores other factors The behaviourist approach to understanding abnormality is very reductionist because it reduces explanations for behaviour to simple reward and punishment.
Free biological model papers, essays, and research papers it is quite important to understand the thermal phenomena and temperature behavior of biological bodies. Outline and evaluate two explanations of attachment John Bowlby argued that attachment is a biological need - Outline and evaluate two explanations of attachment John Bowlby.Download